The Sahara of Morocco Before Colonisation
Prior to colonization and the establishment of the protectorate in Morocco, the country was sovereign, independent, and united. The Sahara region was also under Moroccan sovereignty during that time. In fact, there were no entities present in the Sahara that were separate from Morocco whatsoever.
The tribes during that time period lived with little to no restraints (“Siba”), which was the social norm back then.
The Sultan (Sovereign) of Morocco exercised his power through the appointment of some officials, such Caid (leader) or his personal representatives, such as Sheikh Maouelainin, who was entrusted with the construction of the city of Smara.
The Sovereign addressed Dahirs (or, Royal Edicts) to each tribe in the Sahara. In fact, all tribes still have these edicts. One such is the Dahir which was addressed to the Rguibat tribe in 1906, which confirmed the links of allegiance, loyalty, and attachment of all Sahraoui tribes to the glorious Alawite Throne.
There is not a single shred of evidence that disproves this historical reality. In fact, it was the populations of the Sahara who founded the Almoravid dynasty, back in antiquity.
The current documents show that whenever a foreign nation tried to enter the Sahara or when its citizens were captured, it was always the Sultan of Morocco who came to an agreement with said nation.
Through negotiations between intermediaries, such as ambassadors, Moroccan and foreign documents indicate that an agreement was reached.
There are several documents which attests to this fact and can be found in many libraries including Rabat, Paris, London, Madrid, Lisbon, and Berlin.
One need only refer to these documents and consult them to verify that what is stated is indeed true. These documents confirm the sovereignty that Morocco has always exercised over its Saharan Provinces.
Throughout history, diplomacy has played an important role in maintaining sovereignty over national territories. From Tangier to Lagouira, diplomatic efforts have ensured that these areas are respected and protected.
Map of the kingdom of Morocco before the protectorate :
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